The Science of Blood Flow and its Impact on Infusion-Related Vessel Health

Recorded On: 01/18/2023

Intravenous (IV) infusions are a common method of treatment in acute and outpatient care requiring an understanding of the vasculature as well as the characteristics of infusions and how they interact with the vein wall. Consideration is typically given to vein diameter with the placement of the most appropriate IV catheter gauge, but little attention is given to the velocity of blood flow as it relates to vein preservation. Vein diameter, valve locations, velocity of blood flow, volumetric blood flow—the 4 Vs—and the hemodilution ratio all play an important role in the safe IV delivery of medications and solutions. Knowledge about the 4 Vs is crucial for optimal site selection for a peripheral intravenous catheter (PIVC). Evidence supports blood velocity as an indicator of the future performance of an intravenous catheter. By applying the calculations for the hemodilution ratio, vein selection is optimal to achieve long-term dwell. Optimal hemodilution allows greater flexibility with the infusion of irrigating solutions, with blood flow and dilution protecting the vein while limiting complications. In this session, we will explore the results of a hemodilution study with a discussion on clinical implications. 

Learning Objectives: At the conclusion of this session, learners will be able to:  
1. Describe the features of veins that affect blood flow. 
2. Evaluate the impact of blood flow volume and velocity on patient response to medication infusions.  
3. Discuss clinical implications of blood flow, dilution, and the development of phlebitis related to infusions.  
4. Apply technology and methods to perform assessment and gain a hemodilution ratio. 

Nancy Moureau, PhD, RN, CRNI®, CPUI™, VA-BC

Nancy Moureau, PhD, RN, CRNI®, CPUI™, VA-BC, has been the owner of PICC Excellence, Inc., an education service provider for infusion therapy and vascular access device insertion and care for more than 30 years. Dr. Moureau's clinical experience spans pediatric, neonatal, ICU PICC/IV Team, and home infusion patient care. As the CEO of PICC Excellence, her current responsibilities include education development, research, speaking worldwide, legal case review, manufacturer consulting, and clinical practice with insertion and supervision of peripheral and central vascular access. PICC Excellence has developed more than 80 online educational courses and pathways to promote insertion competency and the application of evidence-based practices. PICC Certification™ CPUI™, Certified PICC Ultrasound Inserter, and now Neonatal PICC CNPI credentialing programs were established to validate education, knowledge, and competency for PICC inserters. As Co-Chair of the 2015 WOCOVA CVC Taskforce, Nancy facilitated the completion and publication of an evidence-based publication on minimal CVC training requirements. Nancy is an author of over 100 publications, a recipient of the Reader’s Choice Award for publications, and the Herbst Award for lifetime contributions to the specialty of vascular access. Nancy most recently released a systematic approach for the UGPIV Mastery Learning process, an ultrasound-guided peripheral insertion training toolbox, that has received the very first Seal of Approval from INS. Nancy welcomes your questions through her email, or through the PICC Excellence website,

CRNI® RUs: This session has been approved for 2 CRNI® recertification units and meets the non INS Meeting criteria.

Contact Hours: This session has been approved for 1 contact hour

Expiration date for receipt of contact hours: January 18, 2026

To receive contact hours for this educational activity, you are required to attend the entire educational activity and complete the evaluation.

The Infusion Nurses Society is approved as a provider of continuing nursing education by the California Board of Registered Nursing, provider #CEP14209. The certificate must be retained by the attendee for a period of 4 years.


The Science of Blood Flow and its Impact on Infusion-Related Vessel Health
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